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How important is green infrastructure solving urban flooding and improve aesthetics?
Green infrastructure has been getting so much importance these days because people started to appreciate the value of green space and the value it adds to the water resources planning. Green infrastructure like bioswale, pervious pavements, wetlands, green traffic island, open green space all have so much impact to reduce urban flooding, augment groundwater supply by filtering rainwater and improve aesthetics of the city for various recreational activities. What would be a better choice where we solve water resources problem and make the city greener and brighter
Quantification of Ecosystem Services of Green Infrastructure?
Green infrastructure is a core concept in the frame of an ecosystem approach to advance urban resilience. However in practice, to justify the need of Green Infrastructure to policy makers, often a quantification of the benefits is demanded. Does somebody has recommendations for models to quantify ecosystem services benefits of Green Infrastructure, for instance like air purification, heat buffer function and GHG reduction? We collected already some experience with the i-tree model, however we are interested also in other types of Green Infrastructure. Preferably we are interested in free models, but commercial models are not excluded from the interest as well.
How to Bridge the Rural-Urban Infrastructure Gap in a Time of Rapid Urbanization?
Recent long-term trends in world development, such as rapid urbanization, environmental problems, rising population and migration movements, as well as climate change affecting the entire planet, pose a serious imbalance in sustainable co-development between rural, sub-urban and urban areas. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented crisis in economic development and social life on a global scale, and highlighted the gap in access to hospitals in urban and rural areas. This policy brief will analyze the main causes of the negative effects of unplanned and rapid urbanization. To facilitate the long-term economic development and social cohesion this paper proposes recommendations on small and medium enterprises development, trade and investment support, infrastructure innovations and technologies in the framework of rural-urban sustainable co-development.
To ensure the long-term economic development and social cohesion the following causes of the negative effects of unplanned and rapid urbanization should be considered:
1. Global trade liberalization and rapid urbanization have significantly changed the patterns of production and demand, especially in the agricultural sector. The population in city centers has grown significantly, and the surrounding farms and factories are not able to produce sufficient amount of food and goods. Increased availability of imported goods decreasing income from farming in small and medium enterprises in metropolitan area (David Satterthwaite, 2010) (Islam, 1997).
2. The rural-urban infrastructure gap imposes long-term structural challenges. People (especially the younger generation) tend to migrate to cities; this is due to better access to modern types of employment, medical care, education, as well as social mobility and entertainment (World Migration Report 2020). The rapid urbanization increased demand on infrastructure in city area, and reduced demand in rural area. As a result, we have such challenges as an aging infrastructure, poor transport accessibility, lack of access to hospitals, schools and government services in rural areas. In urban areas, we can observe an overload of transport infrastructure, different types of pollutions, and negative spillover effects of overpopulation (inability to provide a good standard of living by city government) (Migration and Its Impact on Cities, 2017).
3. The lack of strategic planning and cross-jurisdictional cooperation shape the preconditions for social conflicts and economic instability. Land acquisition is one of the most challenging process, which associated with infrastructure development (Yoshino, 2018). Expanding of the cities and development of new transport infrastructure could provoke serious conflicts with residents of suburban areas (triggered by forced displacement, destruction of local cultural heritage, deforestation and negative impact on nature). Due to the cheaper cost of living, the rural and sub-rural areas most attractive places for migrants, the uncontrolled rapid growth of population can lead to significant threats to the local social and economic stability (Bingqin Li, 2016). New threats arising from the global interconnected transport infrastructure, high urban population density, climate and environmental challenges require the creation of innovative and technological solutions capable of managing complex systems in an emergency (Gabriel Lanfranchi, 2018).
What are the factors that facilitate the implementation of green infrastructure? And what are the barriers you are facing?
If we all acknowledge the benefits of green infrastructure compared to conventional grey ‘solutions’, for which reasons it has not been widely implemented yet?
We have already identified some key factors like awareness, multifunctionality, financial incentives, laws and policies, existing planning recommendations, and the collaboration among different actors.